Phobia

Phobia is a strong, persistent, and irrational fear elicited by a specific stimulus or situation, such as, morbid fear of closed places. It is a pathological fear or, in other words, it is of the nature of disease and the individual has a strong aversion to it. The DSM-III recognises two basic forms of anxiety disorder: anxiety states and phobic disorder. Anxiety disorders are fairly common, and it is estimated that about 2 to 4 percent of the general population have at some time been diagnosed as having either a phobic disorder or some other anxiety disturbance.                                 Phobia is the outcome of fear arousing stimulus condition or situation, in that, feeling caused by the nearness or possibility of danger or evil gives rise to anxiety for the safety as likelihood seems real. There are many sorts or kinds of the nature of phobia in the uniform density. Some of these are mentioned below along with objects that will put forward situations and events around which phobias may be centred:          Acrophobia-high places                        Agoraphobia-open places                      Algophobia-pain                                     Astraphobia-storms, thunder, and lightning                                                          claustrophobia-closed places              Hematophobia-blood                                Mono-phobia-being alone                              Mysophobia-contamination or germs                                                                      Nyctophobia-darkness                                  Ocholophobia-crowds                              Pathophobia-disease                               Pyrophobia-fire                                          Syphilophobia-syphilis                                Zoo-phobia-animals or some particular animal                                              Phobic disorder occurs more commonly among adolescents and young adults than among older people. It also occurs more frequently in females than in males. It is true that phobia is a persistent fear of some object or situation that presents no actual danger to the person but in phobic disorders such fears are intense and interfere with everyday activities. Phobic individuals may do some extra job to avoid the situation or stimulus condition. An attempt to approach rather than avoid the phobic situation results in people suffer from mild feelings of uneasiness and distress to a full-fledged anxiety attack. Phobic disorders may cause to evolve tension headaches, back pains, stomach upsets, dizzy spells and fear of “cracking up.” In an acute panic such individuals, often, complain of feelings of unreality, of strangeness and of ” not being themselves.” Many people report serious difficulties in interpersonal relations. Feelings of depression, difficulty in making decision, or a persistent obsessive fear of contamination dominates the neurotic individual’s consciousness. Fear-inspiring object is substituted for one that is less easy to deal with. Phobic behaviour tends to be reinforced by the reduction in anxiety when feared situation is avoided. In general, it appears that there are several types of phobias because of the nature of disease enforced upon individual from the source outside as and when the individual is acquainted with it. Vulnerability to the same occurs. According to psychologists,”phobia might have been experienced by 7.7 percent people in general population but it is only .2 percent in general population that which is severe.

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