Drug abuse and dependence

Drug abuse is the use of a drug to the degree that it produces impairment in social adjustment or physical and psychological health. Moreover, drug addiction is the habitual use of drugs, with psychological and physical dependence. The psychoactive drugs those are associated with abuse and dependence, aside from alcohol, such as, (a) narcotics-opium and […]

Alcohol abuse and dependence

People in early cultures, including the Egyptian, Greek, and Roman, made extensive and often excessive use of alcohol. Cambyses, King of Persia in the sixth century B.C. was one of the first alcoholics on record. Beer was first made in Egypt around 3000 B.C.


Hypnosis was known by ancient Egyptians and other early peoples, but its modern use in psychotherapy dates only from the time of Anton Mesmer. In general, hypnosis may be defined as an altered state of consciousness involving extreme suggestibility. The procedure to induce hypnosis is designed to bring about a heightened state of selective attention, […]


Neutrality is a state of being neutral. It is of the position, in which, no power is transmitted. Neutral motive state of the mind occurs when a person is neither for nor against something in an experiment, collection of data, working on the hypotheses, or practicing mindfulness, besides, thinking about a problem. It is characterizing […]

Primitive infantile mind

The term, primitive infantile mind, is taken from Psychoanalytic theory, in that, ego is defined as  the superficial portion of the Id, or primitive infantile mind, that develops out of the Id in response to stimulation from the infant’s physical and social environments. Superficial portion of the Id is descriptive of the psychological processes that […]

Basics of psychoanalytic perspective

There are three key subsystems within the personality of an individual: the Id, ego, and superego. Id is the source of instinctual drives of two types: (a) constructive drives, and (b) destructive drives. Therefore, life, or constructive, instincts are opposed by death, or destructive, instincts. The Id is completely selfish and demands immediate gratification of […]

Transactional analysis (Relationship techniques)

It is a version of interpersonal therapy. Eric Berne states that our personalities are composed of three “ego states”-Child, Adult, and Parent. Our Parent is that part of our personality we have incorporated from our own parents or from other parental models whom we have inadvertently learned to try to do as well as or […]